Scharnhorst. Sustainability Analysis, since 2002.

2015-03-31

Release Announcement
Quarterly Notes on Sustainable Water Management - Q01/2015
Groundwater Management









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note The present issue of the Quarterly Notes on Sustainable Water Management (Q01/2015) – Groundwater Management – concentrates exclusively on issues like aquifer replenishment/recharge, energetic as well as geo-political issues of groundwater access and use as well as other effects on groundwater, for example by the mining industry. The key topics addressed by the articles comprise among others:

•    Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR)
•    Forecasting ground water levels
•    Aquifer Protection
•    Combined operation of wind mills and ground water pumping
•    Effects of heat pump systems on groundwater
•    Economic effects of aquifer recharge
•    Managing conflicts in context of aquifer usage

All articles are fully referenced at the end of this issue of the Notes and can be accessed online.
In addition this issue of the Quarterly Notes on Sustainable Water Management  provides a comprehensive status overview on the functional and graphical re-design of the former web-site _kt75 | mirror (http://kt75-mirror.blogspot.com/) and its integration.


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2015-03-23

Germanys Next Topmodel: Coal (a status report)









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reprint UPDATE -- The debate about the future use of coal to generate power gathered steam in Germany after the country recently saw greenhouse gas emissions rise. The government’s Climate Action Programme foresees additional emission cuts from the power sector and the federal grid planning agency now assumes there will be one third less coal in the power mix in the future. By summer 2015, the Ministry for Energy wants to present legislation that specifies how and when coal power generation has to be limited.

Power generation from coal has long served German industry, and despite Germany’s reputation as an ecological role model, the cheap, carbon-intensive, fossil fuel has recently seen a revival. After many scientists, activists and politicians, including the Environment Minister, warned that Germany would miss its target of cutting CO2 by 40 percent by 2020 (over 1990), the government adopted a plan to cut the share of coal in the mix. The Climate Action Programme stipulates that the energy sector must save an extra 22 million tonnes of CO2 by 2020. While the government has not detailed where the savings will  have to come from, it will be hard to achieve without affecting coal. Because of its highly political role – industry and unions alike are unhappy about the cuts – the government has not specifically outlined how much coal will need cutting. A decision on that is expected in the first half of 2015. But several recent events indicate the future direction: Besides the government standing firm on climate targets and enacting the Climate Action Plan,  the Federal Network Agency (Bundesnetzagentur) recently published future grid plans, assuming  up to seven gigawatts less lignite capacity by the year 2025. Those replaced previous assumptions that more lignite power would be added. Nevertheless, utilities like RWE, MIBRAG, Vattenfall and E.ON, as well as some trade unions, portray lignite as an essential “bridging” technology, which provides jobs in otherwise economically weak areas. They believe that recent modernisations and abundant lignite resources in Germany will enable the technology to prevail in the coming decades. 

Status of hard coal

The post-war economic boom in Germany (Wirtschaftswunder) was fuelled by hard coal mined in the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and the Saarland, which powered the industries of West Germany. But hard coal has since lost its competitive edge: Of the 83 billion tonnes of hard coal still in the ground, 36 million tonnes are considered minable, but their extremely deep and complicated geological location makes mining too costly to compete on the world market (the average cost for mining one tonne of hard coal in Germany is 180 euros; the average price for imported hard coal was 79 euros per tonne in 2013). The output of hard coal in Germany in 2013 shrank to just 5 per cent of what it was in 1956. With 14,500 jobs still connected to the coal mining sector, the government supported hard coal mining with 1.65 billion euros in 2014. However, subsidies are planned to end by 2018 in a “socially acceptable” way. There are three remaining hard coal mines in North Rhine-Westphalia. Only a fraction of hard coal used in German power stations is mined locally. Instead, coal is imported from Russia (29.3 percent), Columbia (21.2 percent), the United States (20.3 per cent), Australia, South Africa and Poland. In 2013, imports of hard coal increased by 15.2 percent compared to 2012.

Status of lignite

Germany has been the largest lignite producer in the world since the beginning of industrial lignite mining. It still is, followed by Australia, Russia and the United States. Lignite (also called brown or soft coal), mined in Eastern-German Lusatia (Lausitz) and Saxony-Anhalt, was indispensable for the industries of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany). Ninety villages were lost to mining expansion in Lusatia alone. After reunification in 1990, many mines and power stations were closed within a few years as they were not profitable anymore.  Today, unlike hard coal, the remaining opencast lignite mining operations are still a profit-making business, with most of the coal being used in power stations that are close to the mines. There are four coal-mining districts where RWE, Vattenfall, E.ON and MIBRAG operate mines and/or power plants. 5.6 billion tonnes of soft coal are accessible via existing or planned opencast mining – total reserves of minable lignite amount to 34.8 billion tonnes. In 2013, 182.7 million tonnes were mined in the whole of Germany – compared to 169.8 million tonnes in 2009. Exports – mostly to other EU member states – grew by 21.6 per cent in 2012 compared to 2011 but only increased slightly in 2013. The Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) reported 16,410 employees in the lignite mining business in Germany in 2013. The trade union IG BCE wants to sustain these jobs even if this means further exploration and destruction of villages. The government of the state of Brandenburg — home to Germany’s second largest lignite mining region — ruled in June 2014 that Vattenfall may continue mining in Welzow-Süd beyond 2026, even though 810 people will have to be relocated. But in October 2014, Vattenfall announced its intention to sell all its lignite operations in Germany, in a move to improve the company’s CO2 footprint. In North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) – traditionally another stronghold for coal mining in Germany – the state government decided in March 2014 to cut future lignite production by 1.3 billion tonnes, saving 1,400 people from relocation. But at the same time, the NRW government stressed that coal mining will continue until at least 2030. Read the entire reprint ... // empowered by wolframscharnhorst.blogspot.com).


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2015-03-19

_moneytalks V:
On the New Economy of Renewable Energy Storage









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reprint A major new Deutsche Bank report has predicted that energy storage – the “missing link of solar adoption” – will be cheap enough – and technologically ready – to be deployed on a large-scale within the next five years. The solar industry report, published on Friday, said that while costs for the greater majority of available battery technologies remained prohibitive, economically competitive batteries were the “killer app” and the “holy grail” of solar penetration.

But with many costs already lower than published literature would suggest, Deutsche Bank believes this ultimate solar and renewable energy goal might not be far out of reach. “Using conservative assumptions and no incentives, our model indicates that the incremental cost of storage will decrease from ~14c/kWh today to ~2c/kWh within the next five years,” the report says. “When overall system cost decreases are considered, we believe solar + batteries will be a clear financial choice in mature solar markets in the future.” Currently, according to Deutsche, the cost of a typical lead-acid battery may be as low as ~$200/kWh, while best in class lithium-ion technology was producing commercial/utility packages in the ~$500/kWh range at end 2014 – half the cost of the ~$1000/kWh 12 months prior.

“We believe 20-30 per cent yearly cost reduction is likely (for lithium-ion batteries), which could bring (them) at commercial/utility scale to the point of mass adoption potential before 2020,” the report says. eutsche points to the commercial-scale market as one of the first areas where battery deployment will flourish, due to clear economic rationale. “Commercial customers are often subject to demand based charges, which can account for as much as half of the electric bill in some months,” Deutsche says. “We think companies with differentiated battery solutions coupled with intelligent software and predictive analytics that work with the grid to avoid these charges and smooth electric demand will pave the way for mass adoption.” The report also points to utilities as a major market for batteries on a large scale, as costs drop and distributed renewable energy generation deployments increase. On the residential level, the report said households were still unlikely to go down the energy storage path in the short term, without proper pricing mechanisms in place, or access to solar plus storage energy packages. But again, Deutsche sees this as as a major, untapped opportunity for utilities: “Over the next decade, we see a substantial opportunity for utilities to utilize smart grids through residential battery aggregation.” Properly incentivised, the report says, utilities could begin to aggregate neighborhoods of solar + batteries to behave as a single source of load reduction. “Batteries could be dispatched as needed to reduce peak demand across the system. In a high gridpenetration scenario, this could reasonably lower the necessary capacity from conventional generation sources.

“In turn, we think it is reasonable to hypothesize that lowered capacity needs from lowered peak demand would simultaneously lower the need for large up front capital investment in peaker plants.” Deutsche sites two likely scenarios that would enable this sort of utility-driven household battery deployment: Third party leasing companies and individuals work with the utilities; or a shift in regulatory framework that allows utilities to include residential solar in their rate base. “Both of these scenarios would likely significantly improve reliability, enable microgrids to function as needed, and improve grid resiliency during emergency situations,” the report says. So what sort of batteries will homes, businesses and utilities be using? As the table below shows, there is quite a range of key technologies that, according to Deutsche, have the potential to be longer-term energy storage solutions, subject to technological feasability and cost. Read on ... // empowered by wolframscharnhorst.blogspot.com).


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2015-03-09

Nevermind. The Bottom Line on Nuclear Energy

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reprint Existing nuclear power plants are extremely valuable societal assets. Shutting them down in the absence of compelling economic or technical reasons is folly. It sometimes feels like this statement is so obvious that it shouldn’t need to be made and yet you don’t have to look far to see governments which appear not to care.
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In Europe, Germany and Belgium have implemented arbitrary caps on reactor lifespans as part of their phase-out policies. Green party pressure in Sweden may yet result in tax hikes which make the ongoing operation of nuclear plants there next to impossible. In Spain the Garoña plant closed due to the impact of a new tax law (the government is now in fact seeking to resurrect the plant). Even in France, that champion of nuclear technology, the Hollande government is introducing legislation that would cut the country’s reliance on nuclear energy to 50% of generation by 2025, down from 75% today. If enacted (and as of writing the senate has just rejected the 2025 time frame) this would surely result in early reactor closures.
In the USA, currently cheap natural gas is putting the squeeze on some plants with the retirement of at least two units in recent years being primarily due to ‘economic’ factors and with three others being negatively impacted by these. Ironically, this is happening just as the country has acknowledged the seriousness of climate change with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the process of finalising new rules for power plants to help the country meet carbon emissions targets. The USA, like many others, is heavily subsidising renewables while utilities are becoming increasingly concerned about the lack of diversification in dispatchable capacity. The idea then that reactor closures have taken place on economic grounds needs some qualifying.
Make no mistake. Closing well-performing nuclear plants before it is technically necessary costs society dearly. Anyone who has ever bought an expensive appliance will understand that you aim to squeeze every bit of useful work out of it before letting it go. You maximise the value of your investment. The economics of nuclear generation is dominated by construction and financing, with fuel and operating costs typically lower than fossil. As with renewables such as wind and solar, once you have gotten through the painful period of paying back the initial capital outlay you should have entered a golden period of low-cost power production.
Nuclear plants form the baseline of healthy power systems in countries lucky enough to have them. Their continuous reliable output helps to keep grids going largely irrespective of the weather and stable low production costs reduce consumer price volatility. Replacing them will almost certainly result in extra expense to consumers as adding new capacity incurs both a new capital and operating charge, while the existing nuclear plant need only cover any upgrades and ongoing production costs.
Many in the green movement like to characterise nuclear energy as ‘uneconomic’ but this is absurd when applied in relation to the vast majority of existing plants – not to mention overly-simplistic for new-build (to be the subject of another post). The existing nuclear fleets in Europe and the USA were built decades ago – and almost to a unit were built by the then regulated or state-controlled energy sectors which made this kind of public serving long-term investment possible. These plants are now in their prime, with the vast majority showing clear potential for decades of additional service. Read on ... // empowered by wolframscharnhorst.blogspot.com).


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2015-02-25

Heavy Fuel: European Comission favours Energy Union

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reprint Energy is used to heat and to cool buildings and homes, transport goods, and power the economy. But with ageing infrastructure, poorly integrated markets, and uncoordinated policies, our consumers, households and businesses do not benefit from increased choice or from lower energy prices. It is time to complete the single energy market in Europe. Delivering on this top priority set out in President Juncker's political guidelines, today the European Commission sets out its strategy to achieve a resilient Energy Union with a forward-looking climate change policy.

The Energy Union means in particular:
Solidarity clause: reducing the dependence on single suppliers and fully relying on their neighbours, especially when confronted with energy supply disruptions. With more transparency when EU countries make deals to buy energy or gas from countries outside the EU;
Energy flows, as if it were a Fifth freedom: that of free flow of energy across borders - strictly enforcing the current rules in areas such as energy unbundling and the independence of regulators – taking legal action if needed. Redesigning the electricity market, to be more interconnected, more renewable, and more responsive. Seriously overhauling state interventions in the internal market, and phasing out environmentally harmful subsidies.
Energy efficiency first: fundamentally rethinking energy efficiency and treating it as an energy source in its own right so that it can compete on equal terms with generation capacity;
Transition to a low-carbon society that is built to last: ensuring that locally produced energy – including from renewables – can be absorbed easily and efficiently into the grid; promoting EU technological leadership, through developing the next generation of renewables technology and becoming a leader in electromobility, while European companies expand exports and compete globally.

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In an Energy Union, citizens are at the core. The prices they pay should be affordable and competitive. Energy should be secure and sustainable, with more competition and choice for every consumer. These and other commitments sit alongside an action plan to meet these ambitious goals in our energy and climate policy. Jean-Claude Juncker, Commission President, said "For too long, energy has been exempt from the fundamental freedoms of our Union. Current events show the stakes – as many Europeans fear they may not have the energy needed to heat their homes. This is about Europe acting together, for the long term. I want the energy that underpins our economy to be resilient, reliable, secure and growingly renewable and sustainable." Maroš Šefcovic, the Vice-President responsible for the Energy Union said: "Today, we launch the most ambitious European energy project since the Coal and Steel Community. A project that will integrate our 28 European energy markets into one Energy Union, make Europe less energy dependent and give the predictability that investors so badly need to create jobs and growth. Today, we set in motion a fundamental transition towards a low-carbon and climate-friendly economy, towards an Energy Union that puts citizens first, by offering them more affordable, secure, and sustainable energy. Together with all other Commissioners who have worked closely on the project team, and with the support of the entire Commission, I am determined to now turn this Energy Union into reality." Miguel Arias Cañete, Commissioner for Climate Action and Energy said: "Let's get down to work. Today we have set the course for a connected, integrated and secure energy market in Europe. Now, let's make it happen. Our path to real energy security and climate protection begins here at home. That's why I will focus on building our common energy market, saving more energy, expanding renewables, and diversifying our energy supply. After decades of delay, we will not miss another opportunity to build an energy union. The Juncker Commission gets the big things right."

Key figures

● The EU is the largest energy importer in the world, importing 53% of its energy, at an annual cost of around €400 billion.
● 12 EU Member States do not meet the EU's minimum interconnection target – that at least 10% of installed electricity production capacity be able to "cross borders". The EU has listed 137 electricity projects, including 35 on electricity interconnection: between them, these projects could bring that figure from 12 down to 2 Member States. 


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2015-02-23

Construction Time Again: the Return of Nuclear Power

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reprint East–West nuclear rivalry is back. The Ukraine crisis threatens the nuclear governance. Demand for nuclear energy is growing again after the 2011 Fukushima disaster. A 2014 report by Bloomberg New Energy Finance forecasts a 69 per cent expansion in nuclear capacity worldwide from 345GW in 2012 to 583GW by 2030. Furthermore, the International Energy Agency counts that more than three-quarters of nuclear reactors under construction are in non-OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries. China’s domestic appetite for energy accounts for much of this increase, with four to six reactors expected to be built every year for the next five years. Civil nuclear facilities in China incorporate technology from a variety of western suppliers, but Beijing has aggressively negotiated for intellectual property to be shared during the acquisition process. Westinghouse, for example, handed over designs of its AP1000 reactor to State Nuclear Power Technology Corporation, providing China with a foundation from which it has developed its own pressurised water reactor technology, the Hualong One.
emergence of a new Cold War, and with it the return to a standoff between nuclear-armed opponents. Meanwhile, nuclear rivalry is shaping up in another arena: exports of civil nuclear technology represent a new battleground in which Russia – and increasingly China – are significantly outgunning the West, with troubling implications for global

This untested Chinese technology is being installed at a facility in Pakistan, although progress on construction was recently halted by courts in Karachi citing environmental concerns. Despite this setback, Beijing has ambitions to export nuclear technology on a large scale. The February merger of China Power Investment Corporation and State Nuclear Power Technology Corporation—designed to consolidate expertise in international technology transfer and nuclear power production—suggests that Beijing is positioning itself to increase international supply of its own nuclear technology in the future. An assessment of the dynamics of nuclear supply already provides difficult reading for Western suppliers such as Areva or Westinghouse, who are simply unable to compete with Chinese and Russian financing. According to data from the World Nuclear Association, Russia is currently building 37 per cent of the civil nuclear facilities under construction globally, followed by China with 28 per cent. Rosatom, the Russian nuclear corporation, has orders on its books worth US$100bn. Both Russia and China are offering prospective buyers, predominantly in emerging economies, generous financial support to gain access to a range of markets. Moscow has already transferred technology to Hungary, Turkey and Venezuela, and in November 2014 announced that it would build up to eight new nuclear reactors in Iran, despite continuing concerns about Tehran’s nuclear intentions. A preliminary agreement signed last week between Vladimir Putin, the Russian president, and Egyptian leader Abdel Fattah el-Sisi suggests this trend shows no signs of abating. In addition to the on-going relationship with Pakistan, China has also signed bilateral deals to provide new nuclear reactors to Argentina and is expected to be closely involved in the new nuclear build at Hinkley Point in the UK. While the Chinese contribution to the British facility will be financial, this is a likely precursor to an operational role at future UK nuclear sites, with the possibility of indigenously designed Chinese technology being installed on Britain’s east coast. Although nuclear exports are expected to generate profit, they are also strategic. Sanctions have driven Russia to use such deals to solidify relationships with states outside of Europe. For example, Moscow is establishing deeper ties with states in the Middle East and Latin America. China exports to Pakistan to balance its rivalry with India, straining if not ignoring international guidelines set out by the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), which oversees the trade of international civil nuclear technology. Suppliers are not supposed to export civil nuclear technology to states that have not signed the international Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), of which Pakistan is one, alongside India, Israel, North Korea and South Sudan. Read on ... // empowered by wolframscharnhorst.blogspot.com). Also read: [1], [2]


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2015-02-18

Back to the Future: BP Energy Outlook 2035

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reprint Global demand for energy is expected to rise by 37% from 2013 to 2035, or by an average of 1.4%/year, due in large part to ongoing economic expansion in Asia, particularly in China and India, according to the latest BP Energy Outlook 2035. Demand for oil is projected to increase 0.8%/year to 2035, coming entirely from countries outside of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Oil consumption within OECD peaked in 2005 and by 2035 is expected to have fallen to levels not seen since 1986. China by 2035 is likely to have overtaken the US as the world’s largest single consumer of oil. The recent worldwide rise in oil supply stemming in large part from strong growth in tight-oil production in the US, meanwhile, is likely to take several years to work through, BP indicates in its outlook. Tight-oil production in 2014 drove overall US oil output higher by 1.5 million b/d—the largest single-year rise in US history. But further out, BP notes, the growth in tight oil is likely to slow and Middle East production will gain ground once more. By the 2030s the US is likely to have become self-sufficient in oil, after having imported 60% of its total demand as recently as 2005. The outlook also projects worldwide carbon dioxide emissions to increase 1%/year to 2035—or 25% over the period—on a trajectory significantly above the path recommended by scientists as illustrated, for example, by the IEA’s “450 Scenario” (OGJ Online, Dec. 7, 2009).

Natural gas demand rising

Demand for natural gas will increase fastest of the fossil fuels over the period to 2035, rising 1.9%/year, led by demand from Asia, the outlook indicates. Half the increased demand will be met by rising conventional gas production, primarily in Russia and the Middle East, while the other half will come from shale gas. By 2035 North America, which currently accounts for almost all global shale gas supply, will still produce about 75% of the total.

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As demand for gas grows, there will be increasing trade across regions and by the early 2020s, Asia-Pacific will overtake Europe as the largest net gas importing region. The continuing growth of shale gas also will mean that in the next few years, North America will switch from being a net importer to net exporter of gas, BP says. The overwhelming majority of the increase in traded gas will be met through increasing LNG supplies. Production of LNG will show dramatic growth over the rest of this decade, with supply growing almost 8%/year through the period to 2020. This also means that by 2035 LNG will have overtaken pipelines as the dominant form of traded gas, BP says. Increasing LNG trade will also have other effects on markets. Over time it can be expected to lead to more connected and integrated gas markets and prices across the world. And it is also likely to provide significantly greater diversity in gas supplies to consuming regions such as Europe and China. Read the entire outlook... // empowered by wolframscharnhorst.blogspot.com).


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2015-02-13

The Carbon Bubble: Concept, Hype or another Sort of Reality?

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reprint The so-called “carbon bubble” is no longer a concept, it’s a reality, according to UN climate chief Christiana Figueres, who will oversee the crucial UN climate conferencein Paris in December.

Investors who sunk their money into the fossil fuel sector are going to come up losers, she suggested, as plummeting oil prices have made new extraction projects too costly to continue to pursue and concerns about global warming have made them too risky. “A lot of the stranded asset conversations we’ve been having for a long time are now coming true,” she told RTCC, speaking from the World Future Energy Summit in Abu Dhabi. “Those expensive oil projects—deep sea, Arctic, tar sands—those are actually beginning to be taken off the table because of the low oil prices.” That’s good news for the environmental groups that have long warned about “stranded assets”—coal, oil and gas that would have to be left in the ground to slow climate change—and how that was leading to an overvaluation of these reserves. RTCC cited a number of expensive exploration and extraction projects that have already been cancelled. Chevron has delayed plans to drill in the Canadian Arctic. Norway’s Statoil has returned three licenses to explore for oil off the Greenland coast. And Shell and Qatar Petroleum announced last week they were scrapping a planned $6.5 billion petrochemical project in Qatar, saying it was “commercially unfeasible, particularly in the current economic climate prevailing in the energy industry.” Qatar’s state-controlled petrochemical company Industries Qatar abandoned plans for another $6 billion plant last September. Many of these projects were planned when oil was $100 a barrel. It’s now under $50. In the U.S., Texas is feeling the brunt of the oil bust, as extraction companies lay off workers. The New York Times reported yesterday, “With oil prices plummeting by more than 50 percent since June, the gleeful mood of recent years has turned glum here in West Texas as the frenzy of shale oil drilling has come to a screeching halt. Every day, oil companies are decommissioning rigs and announcing layoffs. Small companies that lease equipment have fallen behind in their payments.” And the once seemingly unstoppable growing of fracking in North Dakota’s Bakken shale region has also come to a screeching halt. Carbon Tracker Initiative, a independent nonprofit think tank that analyzes energy from both an environmental and financial standpoint, coined the term “carbon bubble” and has continuously warned investors about the risks of sinking money into fossil fuel-related businesses, due to the 2c target of limiting global warming to 2 degrees to stave off the worst impacts of climate change. “If the 2C target is rigorously applied, then up to 80 percent of declared reserves owned by the world’s largest listed coal, oil and gas companies and their investors would be subject to impairment as these assets become stranded,” the group said in its report Unburnable Carbon. Read on ... // empowered by wolframscharnhorst.blogspot.com).


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2015-01-29

Radioactive? On the Role of Nuclear Power in UK

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reprint The global rebirth of nuclear power was meant to be well under way by now, writes Jim Green. But in fact, nuclear's share of world power generation is on a steady long term decline, and new reactors are getting ever harder to build, and finance. The only real growth area is decommissioning, but that too has a problem: where's the money to pay for it? The UK's planned Hinkley C nuclear plant is looking increasingly like a dead duck - or possibly parrot.  As the Financial Times reports today, Parliament's Public Accounts Committee has abandoned plans to examine the 'value of money' Hinkley C offers taxpayers - because no deal has been reached and none is expected before the general election in May. In other words, all that bullish talk about Hinkley C launching Britain's 'nuclear renaissance' has melted away like a spring frost in the morning sun. There is no deal on the table for the PAC to examine - indeed it's looking increasingly as if there may never be a deal, in spite of the astonishingly generous £30 billion support package on offer, at the expense of UK taxpayers and energy users.  Only last week Austria confirmed that it will launch a legal action against the Hinkley C support package, on the grounds that it constitutes illegal state aid. The action looks likely to succeed - and even if it doesn't, it's predicted to ensure at least four years of delay.

But it's not just in the UK that the nuclear renaissance has hit the rocks. Global nuclear power capacity remained stagnant in 2014 according to the World Nuclear Association:


⬛ Five new reactors began supplying electricity and three were permanently shut down.
⬛ There are now 437 'operable' reactors compared with 435 reactors a year ago. Thus the number of reactors increased by two (0.5%) and nuclear generating capacity increased by 2.4 gigawatts (GW) or 0.6%. (For comparison, around 100 GW of solar and wind power capacity were built in 2014, up from 74 GW in 2013.)
⬛ Construction started on just three reactors during 2014. A total of 70 reactors (74 GW) are under construction.

Thus a long-standing pattern of stagnation continues. In the two decades from 1995-2014, the number of power reactors leap from 436 to 437. Ten years ago, the rhetoric about a nuclear power renaissance was in full swing. In those ten years, the number of reactors has fallen from 443 to 437. But despite 20 years of stagnation, the World Nuclear Association remains upbeat. Its latest report, The World Nuclear Supply Chain: Outlook 2030, envisages the start-up of 266 new reactors by 2030. Read on... // empowered by wolframscharnhorst.blogspot.com).


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2015-01-22

Release Announcement: Quarterly Notes on Sustainable Water Management Q04/2014
Managing the Urban Water Supply

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print download: http://bit.ly/185cRt9 Sustainable urban water supply represents a key issue today as well as in the near future. Often networks are out of date, leakage or plugging is a common issue and investments need to be considered very careful. In addition, the behaviour, i.e. the demand of the consumers varies strongly.
The present issue of the Quarterly Notes on Sustainable Water Management (Q04/2014) – Managing the Urban Water Supply - tries to provide an overview of innovative articles addressing the above issues in-depth.
As always, a summary of news about the development of the web-portal is given. In the fifth year of its operation the platform is subject to a thorough re-design. This implies that the former _kt75 | mirror (http://kt75-mirror.blogspot.com/) is now integrated into the large information portal http://wolframscharnhorst.blogspot.com. Via this portal a number of other services will be available in the near future. Definitely, the portal will go live fully functional as of 1st April 2015.

Content:

■ Hedging Supply Risks: An Optimal Urban Water Portfolio ■ An Overview of Hybrid Water Supply Systems in the Context of Urban Water Management: Challenges and Opportunities ■ Assessing the performance of urban water utilities in Mozambique using a water utility performance index ■ Water Supply Network Sectorization Based on Social Networks Community Detection Algorithms ■ Moving Towards Sustainable and Resilient Smart Water Grids ■ Scenario-Based Analysis on Water Resources Implication of Coal Power in Western China  ■ Analysis of the Possible Use of Solar Photovoltaic Energy in Urban Water Supply Systems ■ The Water Demand of Energy: Implications for Sustainable Energy Policy Development ■ Rogun Dam—Path to Energy Independence or Security Threat? ■ Global analysis of urban surface water supply vulnerability ■ Water on an urban planet: Urbanization and the reach of urban water infrastructure ■ Challenges for urban water supply: the case of Masvingo Municipality in Zimbabwe ■ (Book): Integrated Water Cycle Modelling of the Urban/Peri-urban Continuum ■ Investigating Transitions of Centralized Water Infrastructure to Decentralized Solutions – An Integrated Approach ■ Transitioning Towards Urban Water Security in Asia Pacific ■ A political–industrial ecology of water supply infrastructure for Los Angeles ■ The Economics of Groundwater Replenishment for Reliable Urban Water Supply …

Download it now free of Charge from: http://bit.ly/185cRt9 and learn more about urban water supply...  continue to discuss the issues via sustainability2.0: https://plus.google.com/u/0/communities/104496231474687499876 and subsribe to the free mirror | first reader: http://goo.gl/2D9xT

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