_moneytalks IV
How the Market Can Mitigate Water Shortages in the American West

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The American West has a long tradition of conflict over water. But after fifteen years of drought across the region, it is no longer simply conflict: it is crisis. In the face of unprecedented declines in reservoir storage and groundwater reserves throughout the West, we focus in this discussion paper on a set of policies that could contribute to a lasting solution: using market forces to facilitate the movement of water resources and to mitigate the risk of water shortages. 
We begin by reviewing key dimensions of this problem: the challenges of population and economic growth, the environmental stresses from overuse of common water resources, the risk of increasing water-supply volatility, and the historical disjunction that has developed between and among rural and urban water users regarding the amount we consume and the price we pay for water. We then turn to five proposals to encourage the broader establishment and use of market institutions to encourage reallocation of water resources and to provide new tools for risk mitigation. Each of the five proposals offers a means of building
resilience into our water management systems. 
Many aspects of Western water law impose significant obstacles to water transactions that, given the substantial and diverse interests at stake, will take many years to reform. However, Western states can take an immediate step to enable more-flexible use of water resources by allowing simple, short-term water transactions. First, sensible water policy should allow someone who needs water to pay someone else to forgo her use of water or to invest in water conservation and, in return, to obtain access to the saved water. As a second step, state and local governments should facilitate these transactions by establishing essential market institutions, such as water banks, that can serve as brokers, clearinghouses, and facilitators of trade.
Third, water managers should support and encourage the use of market-driven risk management strategies to address growing variability and uncertainty in water supplies. These strategies include the use of dry-year options to provide for water sharing in the face of shortages, and water trusts to protect environmental values. New reservoir management strategies that allow for sophisticated, market-driven use of storage could build additional resilience into water distribution. 
Fourth, states should better regulate the use of groundwater to ensure sustainability and to bring groundwater under the umbrella of water trading opportunities. Groundwater reserves are an important environmental resource and provide strategic reserves against drought, but proper management of groundwater is also critical to the development of markets. Markets cannot work effectively if users can delay facing the realities of local water scarcity through the unsustainable use of an open-access resource.
Finally, strong federal leadership will be necessary to promote interstate and interagency cooperation in water management, as well as to coordinate essential state-level gathering of data on water supplies and water use. In particular, the Bureau of Reclamation of the U.S. Department of the Interior plays a central role in water projects across the West, and its actions will be essential in confronting the crisis. Read on...

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_moneytalks III: water-quality trading may reduce river pollution

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Allowing polluters to buy, sell or trade water-quality credits could significantly reduce pollution in river basins and estuaries faster and at lower cost than requiring the facilities to meet compliance costs on their own, a new Duke University-led study finds. The scale and type of the trading programs, though critical, may matter less than just getting them started. "Our analysis shows that water-quality trading of any kind can significantly lower the costs of achieving Clean Water Act goals," said Martin W. Doyle, professor of river science and policy at Duke's Nicholas School of the Environment. "All other things being equal, regulators should allow trading to occur at the river basin scale as an appropriate first step. Larger spatial scales may be needed later if abatement costs increase," said Doyle, who also serves as director of the water policy program at Duke's Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions. The new study was published this month in the journal Water Resources Research. It comes at a time when regulators are debating the optimal scales and types of trading programs to reduce water pollution in some of the nation's largest and most troubled watershed systems, including the Chesapeake Bay watershed, which spans 64,000 square miles in parts of six states. In water-quality trading programs, facilities facing higher pollution control costs are allowed to meet their regulatory obligations by purchasing pollution reduction credits from other polluters in their trading market. The end result—improved water quality—is the same, but the time and money needed to achieve it is less. New programs are often delayed because regulators want to get as many things right up front as they can. Concerns include how big or small a trading market should be, whether it should include interstate trading, and whether it should be based on one-for-one trades or trading ratios. Getting these details right is vital, Doyle said, but it's also important not to let them bog down a program's launch. "Our research very clearly shows that while achieving an optimal scale is best, any approach will yield gains over no trading at all," he said. "So the point is to allow trading." To conduct their analysis, Doyle and his team developed a coupled hydrologic-economic model that measured the impacts of one-for-one trading and trading ratios among wastewater treatment plants in river basins draining into North Carolina's Albemarle-Pamlico Sound, the nation's second largest estuary. They assessed the pros and cons of each program type over the entire length of the basins, not just downriver or in the estuary. They also looked at how costs were affected when market scale was expanded from sub-basin to basin-wide, and then to a larger area that included adjacent basins extending into Virginia. "As the markets got larger, facilities had more opportunities to find suitably sized trading partners who could help them reduce compliance costs," Doyle said. "But as we exceeded the basin scale, we reached a tipping point where risks increased so that pollution from many sources could end up in just a few places, creating pollution hotspots." The study found only modest differences in the effectiveness of programs allowing one-for-one trading versus trading ratios. The optimal scales of markets remained the same under either scenario. Read on...

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_smoke on the Water: Freshwater Shortage Will Double Climate
Change’s Impact on Agriculture (Study)

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_Experts expect global warming to have a negative impact on crop yields, but shortages of water for irrigation could make for double the trouble, according to a study published yesterday.

As described in ScienceDaily, “given the present trajectory of greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural models estimate that climate change will directly reduce food production from maize, soybeans, wheat and rice by as much as 43 percent by the end of the 21st century. But hydrological models looking at the effect of warming climate on freshwater supplies project further agricultural losses, due to the reversion of 20 to 60 million hectares of currently irrigated fields back to rain-fed crops.”

The study’s lead author, Joshua Elliot, said the analysis is the first of its kind to feature an in-depth comparison of agricultural and hydrological models, which resulted in dramatically different results from other research.
“It’s a huge effect, and an effect that’s basically on the same order of magnitude as the direct effect of climate change,” Elliott, a research scientist with the Computation Institute’s Center for Robust Decision Making on Climate and Energy Policy (RDCEP), Argonne National Laboratory, is quoted as saying. “So the effect of limited irrigation availability in some regions could end up doubling the effect of climate change.”
The “good” news, if any, is that some areas will most likely see more precipitation, which could mitigate some of the effects of shortages, the study says. Read on ...


Hot Spot I: China's Water Scarcity is Virtual

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Water footprints and virtual water flows have been promoted as important indicators to characterize human-induced water consumption. However, environmental impacts associated with water consumption are largely neglected in these analyses. Incorporating water scarcity into water consumption allows better understanding of what is causing water scarcity and which regions are suffering from it. In this study, we incorporate water scarcity and ecosystem impacts into multiregional input-output analysis to assess virtual water flows and associated impacts among 30 provinces in China. China, in particular its water-scarce regions, are facing a serious water crisis driven by rapid economic growth. Our findings show that inter-regional flows of virtual water reveal additional insights when water scarcity is taken into account. Consumption in highly developed coastal provinces is largely relying on water resources in the water-scarce northern provinces, such as Xinjiang, Hebei, and Inner Mongolia, thus  significantly contributing to the water scarcity in these regions. In addition, many highly developed but water scarce regions, such as Shanghai, Beijing, and Tianjin, are already large importers of net virtual water at the expense of water resource depletion in other water scarce provinces. Thus, increasingly importing water-intensive goods from other water-scarce regions may just shift the pressure to other regions, but the overall water problems may still remain. Using the water footprint as a policy tool to alleviate water shortage may only work when water scarcity is taken into account and virtual water flows from water-poor regions are identified. Read on... and read also...


Shared Water Resources in Western Asia: an Inventory Approach

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The sharing of water resources has been an influential feature affecting life, society and development in the Arabian Peninsula, the Mashrek and Mesopotamia for millennia. Historically, communities living in these arid and semi-arid regions always shared the water of rivers, springs and wadis, although this was more out of necessity than idealism. Water resources were traditionally managed at the local level, with tensions emerging between Bedouins, shepherds, pastoralists and
growing urban centres. Water management and irrigation schemes – such as the underground aqueducts or falaj networks found in Bahrain, Oman, Saudi Arabia and Yemen – sustained different communal needs for dozens of centuries, while the marshes of Mesopotamia, the Tigris floodplain and the Jordan River Valley were cultivated and sustained successive civilizations since earliest of times. Hillside terraces from Lebanon to Yemen meanwhile demonstrated the early integration between water and land resources management schemes and local efforts to safeguard water for productive purposes. With the expansion of empires and the changing patterns of commerce between east and west, tradesmen tried to tame the waters of the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers for navigation purposes prior to the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, albeit with limited success. Following the creation of modern nation states in Western Asia starting in the first half of the 20th century, most of the region’s major rivers and many aquifer systems were found to cross political borders.

However, their management did not emerge as a major problem until increasing freshwater scarcity exposed dependencies on internationally shared water resources. During the second half of the 20th century, technological transformations, demographic changes, natural resource extraction, ethnosectarian
conflicts and development needs fundamentally altered the way that water resources were managed internally and addressed in international relations. Largescale irrigation projects boosted investments in and socio-economic dependencies on the water and agricultural sectors. The damming of major rivers for hydropower generation and the expansion of irrigation networks created new economic opportunities upstream, while causingnegative impacts on downstream water users and ecosystems in neighbouring countries, especially during the filling of reservoirs. Smallscale dams on tributaries and in catchment areas also impacted downstream flows, and affected the availability and seasonality of water in intermittent streams. Political conflicts and the occupation of Arab lands also prevented access to surface and groundwater resources, which had traditionally sustained the livelihoods of rural communities. Meanwhile, changing development paradigms and political uncertainties prompted the adoption of national policies to pursue food security through food self-sufficiency in many Western Asian countries, which led to the further extraction of surface and groundwater resources through the subsidization and centralization of largeand small-scale agricultural production.

Considerable quantities of surface water were thus abstracted and increasingly diverted out-of-basin, while return flows from waterintensive agricultural projects polluted rivers and groundwater reserves. Water quality deteriorated, most notably through increased salinity, further affecting domestic and agricultural users downstream. In addition, exponential population growth rates throughout the region caused a sharp rise in demand. Concurrently, agricultural production flourished with the introduction of groundwater pumps in the 1960s and 1970s, which resulted in the intensive development of groundwater resources. However, the arid climate and low rainfall levels meant that groundwater abstraction quickly exceeded recharge, which in turn led to the drying up of springs, streams and shallow groundwater bodies, some of which had flowed across national borders. Further advances in drilling and pumping technology allowed for the exploitation of deep groundwater reserves in the Arabian Peninsula, which were created thousands of years ago and are nonrenewable under current climatic conditions. These deep fossil aquifers are often highly productive and constitute a unique kind of shared water resource in the region. Today, water scarcity levels regionally are well below the water poverty level of 1,000 m3 per capita. However, population growth rates and rural-to-urban migration patterns continue to fuel the expansion of the industrial and service sectors and to increase demand for freshwater resources, as well as water supply and sanitation services. Political unrest and the Arab-Israeli conflict also impede opportunities for constructive dialogue on shared water resources. Meanwhile, the agricultural sector remains the largest consumer of freshwater resources and shared water resources in the region. Climate variability and climate change evidenced by droughts and flash floods, in addition to the unsustainable abstraction of groundwater resources have affected agricultural productivity and further fuelledsocial unrest.

Some states in the Western Asia region have been able to adapt to this condition by increasing investments in desalination, dams, diversions and non-conventional water resources to enhance supply in the face of increasing demand. However, these supply side interventions have often been pursued unilaterally with limited consultation or coordination with downstream users within a shared basin. Water use efficiency improvements have also been pursued, but only to a moderate extent, despite the shared benefits that could be generated by reducing freshwater consumption. As such, dependency on shared surface and groundwater resources persists in the face of growing water scarcity and will continue to be a dominant influence on development policy and inter-state relations in Western Asia. Read on...


Setbacks in Sustainability Communication.

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This is the two hundredth _kt75 | post since February 2010 and with a daily hit rate between 100 and 200 unique visitors the _kt75 | mirror appears to be a well-accepted source of information in a rather narrow niche: sustainable development with a focus on water management. However, even reliable entities like the _kt75 | mirror seem to be subject to some kind of censor-ship. Just recently the LinkedIN channel of the _kt75 | mirror was temporarily shut-down because of the following baseless accusations:
  • phishing
  • multiple contacting
  • spamming
Phishing was never done via _kt75 | mirror, neither multiple contacting. Remains 'spamming'.
Now, it might be worth to clarify that the _kt75 | mirror is operated without any kind of (3rd party) advertisement. The only service _kt75 | mirror offers (free of charge) is information supply. This effort is performed with highest dedication and accuracy. The intention is to provide reasonable, in-depth insights at the right time.
In this context it might be worth to buttress the seriosity of _kt75 | mirror with a few figurer, accordingly
That the LinkedIN channel of the _kt75 | mirror was subject to a temporary shut-down because of the above accusations is also perceived as a bad sign, a setback in free and liberal sustainability communication. If there is someone around not satisfied with something then this should be addressed directly. Accusations as the above can easily lead to some sort of censorship can definitely help preventing the dissemination of important information. Even more - free and liberal debates ask for sound ethics, accusations cannot be part of this.

Despite of the above accusations, the _kt75 | mirror will be operated as before and interested stakeholders are very welcome to explore its services. This might, however, imply that the the LinkedIN channel of the _kt75 | mirror will be shut-down definitely. In this case you are very welcome to sign-up for the _kt75 | first reader and/or join the platform Sustainability2.0.

German economy vulnerable to global water scarcity

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Water is scarce but it continues to be wasted excessively in many industrial states, warns a new study by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), predicting that a global conflict over water resources could bring billions in losses for the German market. EurActiv Germany reports. 

Tomatoes from Spain, textiles from India, metals from South Africa, roses from Kenya; every year, Germany imports massive amounts of goods from around the world that would not be available without considerable water resources. But water is becoming an increasingly scarce global resource. In many countries, it has become more and more difficult to supply the population with adequate drinking water and irrigation for crops. Besides export-reliant countries with critical water resources, the effects of the shortage can be devastating for others as well. According to the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), the worldwide water shortage will also impact industrialised European countries like Germany. If German imports are cut off due to water shortages in producer states, German companies would be hard hit, said a WWF study released on Wednesday (27 August). Philip Wagnitz, one of the authors of the study, said many German economic sectors are both responsible for and affected by the international water crisis, from the food sector to the auto and fashion industries. In Germany itself, the Federal Environment Agency (UBA) has indicated sufficient water resources. The country's annual water supply is estimated around 188 billion cubic metres. But Wagnitz explained that the third largest importing country in the world is extremely dependent on foreign goods, which often require large quantities of water during production.  

9,000 litres of water for one kilogram of cotton WWF reported that annual cotton and textile imports from Pakistan to Germany, require twice as much water as the volume of Germany's fifth largest lake, the Starnberger See, which holds three billion cubic metres of water. Almost 9,000 litres of water are needed to produce one kilogram of cotton in Pakistan, primarily drawn from rivers in eastern parts of the country. But even so, only around one third of the water even reaches the fields, the WWF study indicated. The rest evaporates or leaks out along the way in decrepit irrigation canals. As a result, many areas pump the water they need directly from the groundwater. The effects of this type of water abstraction can be observed in areas such as the Aral Sea in Uzbekistan, WWF warned. There, the sea’s tributaries have been dried up by cotton production, causing the sea to shrink by almost 90%. 

Companies slow to recognise risks In extreme cases, growing water risks being brought on by these developments could create billions in losses for German companies, Wagnitz said. The affected firms would have to deal with image problems and site closures, he stated. Still, many do not even realise their own exposure to hidden water scarcity risks, the WWF expert warned. They will only become aware of the issue once shortages start to materialise, Wagnitz explained.
This is precisely what happened in India recently, he said, when Coca-Cola was forced to close one of its bottling sites. Farmers in the area complained that water they needed was being wasted on soft drink production. Wagnitz mentioned the apparel manufacturer H&M as another example: When cotton harvests in many parts of Pakistan were desolated by monsoon rains four years ago, prices for raw materials grew painfully high. In the worst case, the WWF expert said, flooding or droughts could cause billions in losses on the local market. Read on ...


Fracking: Report Cites Bad Wells for Tainted Water

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Download: Quarterly Notes on Sustainable Water Management - Q02/2014.

Natural gas is contaminating some aquifers not from hydraulic fracturing but from faulty well preparation, according to a new paper. Poorly built and cemented gas wells, rather than fracking itself, have allowed contaminants to flow into shallow drinking-water sources, according to a report published in the Proceedings of the Natural Academy of Sciences.

A debate has raged for years over whether the U.S. energy boom is fouling aquifers and water wells—and what can be done about it. Researchers reported Monday that they developed a tool that can identify whether underground gas has migrated toward the surface over time, or whether it moved recently and rapidly up an industry-drilled well or the cement surrounding the well pipe. Fracking involves pushing a slurry of water, sand and chemicals down a well to break up dense rocks and coax more fuel from the ground. Many academics and some industry engineers have long argued that when contamination occurs, it is the result of bad well construction not the fracking process. Others in the energy industry have maintained that natural gas has been found in aquifers and water wells for years and that there is no proof that fracking or other drilling has made it worse. "Where contamination occurs, it related strictly to well integrity," said study co-author Thomas Darrah, an assistant professor at Ohio State University. "The answer is not to stop drilling. The fix is better executions on the construction of the well and improving well integrity." He said evidence of contamination didn't correlate to wholesale leaks caused by fracking. Michael Krancer, a former Pennsylvania secretary of environmental protection, expressed skepticism that there could be any simple, uncontested way to determine the provenance of natural gas. "What people are expecting—and they are not going to get—is a pregnancy test. It is much more complicated than that," said Mr. Krancer, now head of the energy group at law firm Blank Rome LLP.

The authors of the study, funded by National Science Foundation and Duke University, said their new means of fingerprinting natural gas uses concentrated inert noble gases such as helium and argon to determine whether gas in an aquifer has been there for decades or appeared only recently, flowing up through man-made wells bored into shale rock. "We have developed a tool that can be employed for detecting the source of contamination," said study co-author Avner Vengosh, a Duke University geochemistry professor. The study said the new process showed that poorly built and cemented gas wells have caused contamination in eight clusters: seven in northeastern Pennsylvania and one near Fort Worth, Texas. The study didn't address how common well-integrity failure is, or what level of gas in an aquifer made the water unsafe. Read on...


EU: The Price of Water on the Rise/CH: Wasser wird teurer...

The environmental resources situation is shaped by changes in climatic conditions, coupled with pressures exerted by a rapidly growing global population, its increasing demands and the subsequent impacts on the environment. Current practices across the economy sectors are still not sufficiently ambitious in terms of sustainability; they fail to ameliorate the stress conditions of vital resources like water. In recent years, the need has been highlighted for governance and management schemes that allocate resources appropriately among users (including the environment) and that promote the efficient use of such resources. The very nature of these needs calls for adequate policy responses. One of these policy responses — applied either separately or in combination with other economic or regulatory instruments — is water pricing. The use of such instruments brings additional social and political issues into the already complex equation of sustainable management of water resources. Calculating a price that reflects the true value of water, and thereby contributing to the long-term sustainable management of water resources, is clearly not a simple task. However, it is critical, for both the effectiveness and the integrity of the proposed water pricing systems. In terms of regulatory principles, Article 9 of the WFD introduces the principle of cost recovery for water services in accordance with the PPP. In addition, Article 9 promotes the internalisation of environmental and resource costs that result from existing uses of water resources and of aquatic ecosystems. Read on...

Der Bund weist auf offene Finanzierungsfragen bei der Versorgung mit Trinkwasser hin. Das Verursacherprinzip soll bei der Verrechnung künftig eine kleinere Rolle spielen.
An vielen Orten wird das Wasser in den nächsten Jahren teurer. Ein unlängst publizierter, aber kaum rezipierter Bericht des Bundesamts für Umwelt (Bafu) erkennt einen Investitionsstau bei den Erneuerungen der Versorgungsanlagen. Ausserdem führten die immer besseren Analyseverfahren dazu, dass mehr Substanzen nachgewiesen werden könnten; das Resultat dürften wachsende Anforderungen an die Qualität des Trinkwassers sein. Gleichzeitig ortet das Bafu Probleme bei der Anpassung der Tarife. Aus politischen Gründen seien diese vielerorts zu tief. Eine Benchmarking-Studie habe nur bei rund der Hälfte der untersuchten Gemeinden eine genügende Finanzierungsbasis (Eigenfinanzierung) der Wasserversorgung eruiert, heisst es.

Bereits markante Erhöhungen

Ein Viertel der Wasserversorgungen müsse in Zukunft die Gebühren «erheblich» anheben, so das Bafu. Urs Kamm vom Schweizerischen Verein des Gas- und Wasserfaches (SVGW) erklärt, dass die absehbaren Erhöhungen vor allem ländliche Gemeinden betreffen dürften. Andere Versorger hätten in den letzten Jahren bereits Erhöhungen durchgeführt. Der Durchschnittspreis eines Kubikmeters Trinkwasser sei in den letzten fünf Jahren von 1 Franken 60 auf 1 Franken 80 gestiegen, so die neusten Daten des SVGW. Die regionalen Abweichungen von diesem Mittelwert sind aber mit über 50 Prozent beachtlich. Gründe dafür sind neben den Differenzen punkto nachhaltiger Finanzierung auch die unterschiedlichen Kosten für die Wasseraufbereitung je nach Bezugsquelle und die topografischen Erfordernisse des Netzes.

Das Kernproblem des Wasserverbrauchs sei dabei der Umstand, dass die Kosten für die Anlagen auf die Spitzenbezüge konzipiert werden müssten. Damit bezahle faktisch der Endkunde nicht so sehr für die individuell verbrauchte Menge als vielmehr für die Möglichkeit, jederzeit Wasser zu beziehen. Diese Situation wird noch durch den Umstand verstärkt, dass viele Versorgungsstrukturen vor einigen Jahrzehnten zu gross geplant und gebaut wurden. Einst war der Verbrauch der Industrie noch bedeutend höher als heute. Seit 1985 sind eigentliche Rückgänge beim Wasserverbrauch schweizweit festzustellen (siehe Grafik), auch in absoluten Zahlen, unabhängig vom Bevölkerungsanstieg.
Aufgrund der hohen Fixkostenanteile von bis zu 90 Prozent durch die kostspieligen Infrastrukturanlagen bei den Wasserversorgungen empfiehlt der SVGW seinen Mitgliedern, künftig zwischen 50 und 80 Prozent der Kosten via Grundgebühren zu überwälzen und nur den Rest über die Zählung der verbrauchten Kubikmeter Wasser.
Findet dieser Kostenschlüssel in den nächsten Jahren immer mehr Verbreitung, wird der finanzielle Anreiz zum Wassersparen wohl geschmälert, wie im Bericht des Bundes argumentiert wird. In der Stadt Zürich entspricht just zur Förderung des Wassersparens die Grundgebühr weiterhin nur rund 40 Prozent des Wasserpreises. In Zürich seien auch keine Erhöhungen geplant; man habe vielmehr die Preise vor einigen Jahren gesenkt, auf einen Durchschnittspreis von zwei Franken pro Kubikmeter, heisst es auf Anfrage. In Bern kennt man eine in der Grundgebühr enthaltene kostenlose Bezugsmenge. Bei einem gewöhnlichen Haushalt resultiert daraus aber umgerechnet ebenfalls eine eher kleine Grundgebühr. Weiterlesen...


Under Pressure: Water Supply in Brazil

A severe drought affecting Brazil’s biggest city has led to a “water war” that could cause the water supply to collapse in parts of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.
Authorities in São Paulo have been battling a water crisis for months as reservoirs run dry for lack of rainfall.Earlier this month, the state energy company in São Paulo (Cesp) asked the national operator of the electric system (ONS) to reduce the water flow at the Jaguari hydro-electric dam on the Rio Paraíba do Sul from 40,000 litres per second to 10,000 litres per second.The measure was intended to prioritise water supply to residents in São Paulo state over energy generation.But according to the ONS, which reduced the flow over several days to just 30,000 litres per second, a unilateral reduction would empty reserves and leave millions in 41 municipalities without water by the end of October.
In a statement, the operator said: “The ONS informed the National Water Agency and Cesp that it was not considered viable to meet the request of the agency.” Public prosecutors in Rio have requested information about increasing the water flow of the Paraíba do Sul river, which runs through Rio state and into São Paulo. The dispute over resources has caused conflict between the state governments in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Reports suggested the row could end up in the hands of the president, Dilma Rousseff. “São Paulo cannot take a unilateral decision,” Luiz Fernando Pezão, Rio governor, told Estadão newspaper.“I’m sure the federal government, through the National Water Agency, will determine what has to be done with the Paraíba do Sul river.” Residents in Rio state have reportedly already been affected with shortages that coincided with the temporary reduction in water flow at the dam. Read on...
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